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Selim the Grim: The Birth of the Ottoman Khilafat

From now on, the Ottoman Emperor is a respected patron of the holy city of Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem. He is also the possessor of wealth and the ruler of the most alluring regions of the East. Under his control, a significant portion of the traditional communication paths for trade. (Cambridge History of Turkey, Vol-2, Page-32)

Truly the ascent of the Ottoman throne is a milestone for the whole empire. From the time of his death until the death of the Emperor in 1520, seventy percent of the size of the empire increased. He was not satisfied with the rule of the Dupute rulers, such as the Shah of Persia or the Mamluks of Egypt. The descendants have established Sunni as the model of the Muslim world. By his hand, the next rulers were able to attain the status of Sultan and Khalifa simultaneously.

The most important contribution to the Ottoman Empire is that of Salem the Grim; Image source: allaboutturkey.com

The Sultan is the first Selim. During the eight-year rule, he changed the geographical and cultural maps. Changed the future of Ottoman history. From the Danube to the Arabian Sea; On the other hand, the Nile River from the Black Sea. The Empire should be able to face any enemy with perfect casino skill.

Selim the Grim

Selim was born in the house of Sultan II Bayazid on October 10, 1470. Mother Gulbahar Sultana Dulkadir is the princess of Belichick. Bajakurt Bay is the eleventh ruler of the area. He grew up as determined and courageous. Early education was taught in religion and war. Under the supervision of renowned scholar Maulana Abdul Halim, he acquired knowledge in various subjects. Father II was governor of Trabzon (the Black Sea region of Anatolia) during the reign of Bayazid. The time has come to pass the qualification test. As well as the opportunity to gain administrative and military experience.

After the death of his father, he was involved in a bloody confrontation with his brothers. Came to power in 1512. The title Yavuvu or Grim is earned by all the cruel measures to remove an opponent. His unconcerned policy in fulfilling his decision made the Ottoman Empire a solid foundation. He died on September 22, 1520, after eight years of rule.

Competition for the throne

After the death of Sultan Bayazid, Selim took the throne as Sultan. The second son of the heir, Ahmad, was the son-in-law of Bayazid. There, Selim came to power and fought against his father. Although his father won in the first round, the son quickly deposed his father with the help of the Gensari forces. Poor Bayazid died just a month later. Selim’s rule was established only on the European part. Almost the whole of Anatolia was still controlled by another brother Ahmad. The elder brother was then taken over by Korkut.

The second son-in-law was father-in-law to the other son Ahmad; Image Source: hurriyetdailynews.com

The brothers rebelled to ascend the throne of Selim. The Salem clash with the Ahmeds, which came to the east of the Bosphorus. The defeated Ahmad escaped and took shelter in the court of Shah Ismail, the Safavid ruler of Persia. This court is the eternal enemy of the Ottoman Empire. Selim captures five brothers in Anatolia with Bruce He was hanged and hanged on death row in the hope of claiming a possible throne.

The elder brother, Korcut, began to prepare for war after seeing this cruelty. But Selim made a sudden attack. In the second round, Ahmed gathered troops and came to confront Selim. But fate did not help him. Despite the war with valor, he was defeated and taken captive. The Ottoman civil war ended with Ahmad being killed. Selim sits on the throne suppressing all domestic competitors.

Get in touch with Persia

Shah Ismail, the ruler of the Safavi tribe at the time of the Persian draft. The borders of Persia and the Ottomans often led to conflicts. On the other hand, the Ottomans contradict the Sunni ideology with the Shiite ideology of the Safavids, which has been going on since Father Bayazid’s time. The Shiites of Anatolia support Ahmed during the conflict with Ahmad. Ahmad himself is also known for his initiation into the Shi’ite doctrine.

As well as two ambitious rulers in two adjoining empires; Image source: themaparchive.com

Well-intentioned, Selim kills about 40,000 Shiites in Asia Minor, destroying futuristic enemies. As a result, the conflict between the two ambitious rulers became only a matter of time. As claimed –

Selim was genuinely afraid that the anti-Ottoman propaganda could be transformed into a revolution. (A History of the Ottoman Empire, Douglas A. Howard, p. 162).

Selim’s two brothers took shelter in the court of Shah Ismail. Send them a letter in return. The ambassador was killed when the letter was answered in derogatory language from Persia. In retaliation, Shah Ismail also killed a Turkish envoy to the court. Ultimately, Sultan Selim declared war with fierce anger.

Battle of Chaldean

On 1514, one hundred and forty thousand troops assembled in the sewers. On April 20, he was set on the sidelines of the occupation of the Persian capital Tabriz. On receiving the news, Shah Ismail prepared a force of eighty thousand troops to resist. Persian forces were lagging behind the Ottoman forces in strength and decoration. Nevertheless, Shah burned the area to prevent the advance of Selim. Selim also came forward, losing many soldiers through the hardships of the journey and the food crisis.

Persian forces crash into the front of Ottoman shells; Image source: PBase.com

On 23 August 1514, a battle was fought between the two forces in the Chaldean Desert. Shah’s cavalry could not stand before the cannon and shell of Selim. About 25,000 Persian soldiers were killed. The rest fled. Shah Ismail also escaped with serious injuries. His family is taken, prisoner. Selim wanted to occupy the whole of Persia even after the entry of Tabriz. But due to the refusal of the troops, Diyarbakir and Kurdistan returned to the capital after being captured.

With the Mamluks pulling

Selim’s reputation and reputation have increased a few times because of past victories. The Ottoman forces were too tired and Selim himself too discouraged. Even then, relations with the Egyptian Mamluks continued to turn negative. During his stay in the Persian invasion, Mamluk Sultan Kansoh al Ghorai rallied on the Syrian border.

The invasion of neighboring Persia was a cause for concern for Egypt. After the defeat of Shah Ismail Chaldean, Mamluk sought the help of the Sultan. In response, Kanosh al Ghori made his way to Aleppo in 1516. The nominal Abbasid caliph formed a peace mission with Mutawakkil. Although his main purpose is to assist Shah Ismail. Through the Selim, espionage knows the whole incident beforehand. As a result, he did not listen to the peace mission.

Selim shook their heads in anger at the militant spirit of the peace mission. In disgrace, Ghorye responded and humiliated and imprisoned the sent Turkish envoy to Selim. Sultan Selim began to prepare for the war in anger. Ghori, realizing his mistake, freed the envoy and sent a peace treaty. But Selim remained steadfast in his intention of war.

War of Dawak and Egypt occupied

August 24th, 1516. The two sides face off at Marz Dawik near Aleppo. Mamluk forces are weaker than Turkish forces on all sides. They had no bowlers. Also, Khair Bay, the governor of Aleppo and the left commander of the Mamluk forces, joined the Turkish army. Ghori was defeated by fighting valor. He fell off his horse and died.

War changes the equation of the Middle East; Image source: wikipedia.org

After the victory of Aleppo, Selim conquered Damascus and Beirut without any restrictions. After occupying Syria, he turned his attention to Egypt. Gaza occupied Gaza by occupying the Sinai Pasha. At this time, the foster son and slave of Kansoh Al Ghorai were on the throne of Egypt. Many people could not accept him, but Egypt itself was upset.

On January 22, 1517, Ottoman Sultan Selim appears in Cairo. Despite the huge sales barrier, the Tuman Bare resistance system collapsed. The Mamluk Sultan escaped defeat. Sultan ordered Cairo to kill Mamluks indiscriminately. After a few days, a bloody war ensued when Tuman Bay saved energy and attacked again. Despite the heavy casualties of Turkish forces, Tuman Bey was defeated and captured a second time.

Egypt’s rights promote Salem to a unique height; Image source: egypttoday.com

Intrigued by the adventure, Selim wanted to make Tuman Bey the governor of Egypt. But Khair was sentenced to death for being distracted by persuasion. It was through this that the Mamluk clan finally fell. Egypt, Syria, Arabia, and Jerusalem came under the Ottoman Empire.

Ottoman Khilafat

The last Abbasid Caliph Ahmad al-Mutawakkil was the puppet of the Mamluk sultans. The Sultan captured him and took him to Constantinople. Egypt is responsible for the Bay of Khai and a council of forty members. Mutawakkil was soon relieved of the caliphate. From that time the Muslim Khilafat migrated from Egypt to Ottoman Turkey. Which existed until the fall of Khilafat in 1924.

The last days

Selim returned from Egypt to the capital in 1518. The sons Solomon and Piri Pasha ruled Adrianopol and Constantinople respectively. The weary sultan again took charge. With the new initiative, the army and navy began to be decorated.

Within 1519, the construction of 150 large warships and 100 tall boats was completed. There was also a bowling force. But before leaving for a new expedition, he died of a debilitating illness at the age of 54 in 1520.

Didn’t say that

Selim’s relationship with Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur was not very good at first. Babur’s main rebel Ubaidullah Khan found refuge in the Ottoman court. But around 1519, the compromise took place. Sultan Selim sent Ustad Ali Quli Khan to Babur, along with Mustafa Rumi, several Ottoman Samarkhals.

Later, Babur’s use of cannon in the invasion of India was the result. Selim was more focused on domination in the Muslim world than on expedition to Europe. It is through his intense cruelty that he guarantees the empire whose founding ancestor, Usman. That is why it is said,

Selim was the most successful and revered ruler of the empire. He proved his strength and hard work. His father, Selim, drafted the Ottoman Empire to the pinnacle of success that his son Sultan Solomon advanced to. (Necdet Sakaoğlu, Bu Mülkün Sultanları, Page-127)



1) A History of the Ottoman Empire, Douglas A. Howard, Cambridge University Press, 2017, Page-162-170
2) The Cambridge History of Turkey, Vol-2, Cambridge University Press, 2013, Page-44-141
3) https://www.ancient-origins.net/history-famous-people/eliminating-competition-selim-i-grim-conqueror-who-vastly-extended-ottoman-021240
4) https://www.britannica.com/biography/Selim-I
5) https://ottomanhistory.net/node/162

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